Hybrid Framework in Selenium – The Ultimate Guide

4 min read | By Postpublisher P | 04 January 2024 | Frameworks

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The software testing industry has evolved significantly, resulting in the rise of advanced frameworks that improve maintainability and efficiency. One such prominent framework is the Hybrid Framework in Selenium. This Hybrid Framework in Selenium blog explores the intricacies of Hybrid Framework, like its advantages, components, etc.

What is a Hybrid Framework?

In Selenium, Hybrid Driven Framework is a blend of both Keyword-Driven and Data-Driven Frameworks. Hybrid Driven Framework will externalize the test data and keywords. We store the keywords in a separate Java file and maintain the test data in an Excel or a Properties file.

However, to know better insights on Software Automation Testing definitely Selenium Training In Hyderabad In plays an important role.

Components of Hybrid Framework

A Selenium Hybrid Framework is a strong mix of several testing approaches developed to optimize reusability, maintainability, and flexibility of test automation. Let us explore the following components to gain an extensive understanding of the Hybrid Framework.

1) Function Library

2) Object Repository

3) Keyword Management

4) Driver Script

5) Test Case Template Design

1) Function Library

Function Library relates to the repository of the reusable functions or methods enclosing particular functionalities, actions, and behaviors. We can utilize these functions throughout several components or layers of the hybrid framework, like automated testing, manual testing, and other activities of software testing.

๐๐ž๐ž๐ ๐Ÿ๐จ๐ซ ๐‘๐ž๐ฎ๐ฌ๐š๐›๐ฅ๐ž ๐…๐ฎ๐ง๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง๐ฌ

Reusable Functions play a crucial role in software testing due to the following reasons:

i) ๐‚๐จ๐ง๐ฌ๐ข๐ฌ๐ญ๐ž๐ง๐œ๐ฒ: They assure constant behavior throughout the applications and prevent discrepancies.

ii) ๐ƒ๐ž๐œ๐ซ๐ž๐š๐ฌ๐ž๐ ๐ƒ๐ฎ๐ฉ๐ฅ๐ข๐œ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง: Reusable Functions remove duplicate code and simplify maintenance.

iii) ๐„๐Ÿ๐Ÿ๐ข๐œ๐ข๐ž๐ง๐œ๐ฒ: Reusable Functions save time by enabling the reuse of the existing code for regular tasks, improving productivity.

iv) ๐€๐›๐ฌ๐ญ๐ซ๐š๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง: Reusable Components conceal implementation details, enabling developers to work at a high level.

v) ๐Œ๐จ๐๐ฎ๐ฅ๐š๐ซ๐ข๐ญ๐ฒ: We can independently develop and test the reusable functions, endorsing a well-orchestrated system.

vi) ๐‚๐ซ๐จ๐ฌ๐ฌ-๐Ÿ๐ฎ๐ง๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง๐š๐ฅ ๐œ๐จ๐ฅ๐ฅ๐š๐›๐จ๐ซ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง: Reusable functions will create a common foundation and raise teamwork.

vii) ๐’๐œ๐š๐ฅ๐š๐›๐ข๐ฅ๐ข๐ญ๐ฒ: We can leverage the existing functions to adapt new features and support growth.

viii) ๐‘๐ž๐ฎ๐ฌ๐š๐›๐ข๐ฅ๐ข๐ญ๐ฒ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐‚๐จ๐๐ž: We can reuse the functions in different projects, saving time and effort.

Creating and Handling Function Library

The explained methods are used for every action the user takes. Every method includes a keyword. The users do not have to code the method for doing the same activity repeatedly.

We have built a library that authenticates LamdaTest website logo and the authenticated login. We can easily invoke the function with the proper inputs every time we have to confirm the valid login.


When the login is successful, the LambdaTest will open, and code will run. If the login is not successful, the below error will be displayed:

After getting the libraries, we declare the LambdaTest class, which encloses the test automation methods like open_url, verify_lambdaTest_logo, time. sleep, and valid-sign_in, etc.

The main() function is the beginning point of the script. It will create a Chrome WebDriver instance through Webdriver.Chrome(). It will instantiate the LamdaTest class with a WebDriver instance.

2) Object Repository

The Object Repository is the organized storage mechanism for every UI element and locator in the test automation scripts. Rather than programming the locators directly into the test scripts, we will store them in an object repository, enabling us to handle and update locators while they modify without changing test scripts.

๐ข) ๐‡๐š๐ง๐๐ฅ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐”๐ˆ ๐‹๐จ๐œ๐š๐ญ๐จ๐ซ๐ฌ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐„๐ฅ๐ž๐ฆ๐ž๐ง๐ญ๐ฌ

We identify the UI elements through locators like XPath, ID, and CSS Selectors.

๐ข๐ข) ๐ˆ๐ฆ๐ฉ๐ซ๐จ๐ฏ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐“๐ž๐ฌ๐ญ ๐Œ๐š๐ข๐ง๐ญ๐ž๐ง๐š๐ง๐œ๐ž

Test Maintenance includes maintaining our automated test cases up-to-date and effective as our application progresses. As applications like UI updates, bug fixes, or new features regularly change, we should ensure that the test scripts can adjust to these modifications.

3) Keyword Management

After declaring the keywords for the instances, we have to handle them. Generally, we store them in Excel sheets.

Storing the Keywords in the Excel sheets:

๐ข) ๐Š๐ž๐ฒ๐ฐ๐จ๐ซ๐ ๐ƒ๐ž๐Ÿ๐ข๐ง๐ข๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง๐ฌ

Define the row in the Excel sheet for every action or the test step we have to automate. This row will include columns for several attributes of keywords, like

โค Action

โคโคKeyword Name

โค Element Locator

โค Element Identifier

โค Expected Result

โค Parameters

โค Notes or Comments

๐ข๐ข) ๐๐š๐ซ๐š๐ฆ๐ž๐ญ๐ž๐ซ๐ข๐ณ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐š๐ง๐ ๐‘๐ž๐ฎ๐ฌ๐š๐›๐ข๐ฅ๐ข๐ญ๐ฒ

Excel Sheet, which enables us to parameterize the keywords easily. We store the dynamic values that modify throughout the test scenarios or cases through cells.

๐ข๐ข๐ข) ๐Š๐ž๐ฒ๐ฐ๐จ๐ซ๐ ๐„๐ฑ๐ž๐œ๐ฎ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐‹๐จ๐ ๐ข๐œ

We can read Excel sheets and translate the rows as keywords in the test script. For every keyword, derive the related information and run the corresponding actions using proper Selenium functions or the other testing libraries.

๐ข๐ฏ) ๐’๐ฉ๐ฅ๐ข๐ญ๐ญ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐‚๐จ๐ง๐œ๐ž๐ซ๐ง๐ฌ

Split the test logic from test data by storing the keywords in the Excel sheets. Testers can concentrate on specifying the keywords, whereas test data can be handled separately in Excel.

4) Driver Script

In the Hybrid Framework, the test script runs the test cases through the keywords specified in our function library and tracks instructions in test case templates. It connects low-level implementation details and high-level test cases.

Importance of Driver Script

The key functions of Driver Script are as follows:

๐ข) ๐“๐ซ๐š๐ง๐ฌ๐ฅ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐Š๐ž๐ฒ๐ฐ๐จ๐ซ๐๐ฌ: For every step in the test case, the driver script will translate the equivalent keyword and its related parameters from the test case template.

๐ข๐ข) ๐‘๐ž๐š๐๐ข๐ง๐  ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐“๐ž๐ฌ๐ญ ๐‚๐š๐ฌ๐ž๐ฌ: The driver script will read test case templates, which draft the steps to be implemented for every test case.

๐ข๐ข๐ข) ๐‡๐š๐ง๐๐ฅ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐“๐ž๐ฌ๐ญ ๐ƒ๐š๐ญ๐š: The driver script can handle recovering and managing of test data, which can be stored explicitly in the databases and spreadsheets.

๐ข๐ฏ) ๐‚๐š๐ฅ๐ฅ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐…๐ฎ๐ง๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง๐ฌ: The driver script invokes suitable functions from the function library as per translated keywords. These functions enclose actions that have to be performed.

In the above program, the โ€œHybridDriverโ€ class acts as a driver script. It utilizes an object repository for fetching UI element locators and runs keywords as per the given test case steps.

5) Test Case Template Design

A Consistent and well-organized test case template is needed to create consistent and organized test documentation. A well-developed template enhances the test caseโ€™s thoroughness and clarity.

Advantages of Hybrid Framework

The following are the different advantages of using a Hybrid Framework:

1) Easy Testing

Software Testers can concentrate on building concise and clear test scripts, whereas the framework manages the difficulties of test reporting and execution, eventually enhancing the effectiveness of the testing reports. Testers can create high-level keywords that outline complex interactions or actions in the application.

2) Resilience to Blend Methods

The Hybrid Framework allows the software testers to continuously blend the keyword-driven and Data-Driven Frameworks to fit the projectโ€™s requirements.

3) Components Reusability

Through the Data Driven Framework, testers can separate test data from test scripts and create reusable test scripts that can be utilized for different test scenarios. The component reusability lowers the efforts needed for creating new tests and assures continuous testing throughout different modules, resulting in higher test coverage.

4) Best Team Collaboration and Communication

Systematic procedures and the shared testing strategy allow a cohesive framework. Keyword-driven testing improves the test case clarity for no-technical stakeholders in the hybrid framework. It eases test design language, making it usable for contributions and reviews by non-technical associates.

5) Modular Checks

The modular approach improves maintainability since modifications in one module will not affect other modules, providing rapid updates and troubleshooting. Keyword-driven testing comes with this feature.

6) Simple Maintenance

When changes or updates are needed, testers can focus on particular modules, diminishing the effect on the other elements of the testing suite and decreasing the whole maintenance workload.

7) Wider scenario coverage

This assures that different aspects of the application, like functionality, performance, and user experience, are carefully tested, leading to a stronger and more trustworthy software product.

๐€๐ฅ๐ฌ๐จ ๐‘๐ž๐š๐: Top Selenium Interview Questions.


In Selenium, the hybrid framework provides a robust approach combining keyword-driven and data-driven methodologies. Components such as keyword management, function library, driver script, object repository, and function library work together for continuous test execution. I hope this Hybrid Framework in Selenium blog will give you sufficient information about the role of Hybrid Framework in Automation testing.

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